The FARR Resource Library

Over the years FARR have collected a large amount of information and resources that we are able to share with interested parties.  Should you require any furhter information regarding FARR and/or FASD, you are welcome to contact us on: or 021 686 2646

More Information

General information

Globally, FASD is the most common preventable form of mental- and physical disability.  The damage caused to the developing fetus by alcohol exposure during pregnancy, is permanent and irreversible.  The burden of FASD on our society is being ignored despite the fact that it is far-reaching (socially and financially) and completely preventable. It is estimated that in the United States, FASD costs $6 billion (approximately R42 billion) annually and the average cost to treat a person with FASD for life is $1.4 million.  The estimated burden of FASD in South Africa has not as yet been calculated, but is being investigated. The full impact of FASD in South Africa is immeasurable when it is estimated that at least 28% in specific communities may have FASD (according to research undertaken by FARR). Being affected with FASD has far reaching and costly implications for the individual and the family, community and country.  The diagnostic costs and the management of the primary disabilities are immense. If undetected and untreated many individuals with FASD present with secondary disabilities such as mental- and other health problems, substance and other forms of abuse, consequences of risky behavior and conflict with the law. It is therefore extremely difficult to calculate the cost of this condition which is already affecting thousands of South-Africans.  In the light of this, it is apparent that all efforts should be put in place to raise awareness about the harmful effects of alcohol use during pregnancy and need to prevent children from being born with FASD.

When a pregnant mother consumes alcohol, so too does her unborn baby.  Alcohol consumed by a pregnant woman, is carried via her blood circulation system, through the placental tissue that separates the mother and baby’s blood systems, delivering the alcohol directly to the developing tissues of the fetus. Alcohol is especially devastating to the brain of the developing fetus, as alcohol easily crosses the blood-brain barrier.

Alcohol can damage the developing fetus throughout the entire pregnancy and the damage caused is not isolated to any particular stage during pregnancy. The severity of FASD depends on the quantity and timing when alcohol is consumed during pregnancy, together with numerous other factors such as: the mothers’ body mass index and overall health, age, food consumption at the time the alcohol was ingested, genetic predisposition, other substances such as smoking, etc.

There is no known risk-free amount of alcohol a pregnant woman can consume without increasing the risk of damage to the developing fetus. All women who consume alcohol while pregnant are at risk of having a baby with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD).  Research indicates that even light consumption of alcohol during pregnancy can harm the unborn baby. Moderate to heavy alcohol consumption, especially binge drinking, is associated with a higher risk of having a baby with FASD.

Heavy alcohol consumption is defined as an average of about two standard drinks per day during pregnancy and/or 14 drinks per week.  Binge drinking is defined as at least 5 standard drinks on any occasion.

Of all the substances of abuse, including heroin, cocaine and marijuana, alcohol causes the most serious lifelong neurological and physical damage to a developing fetus.

Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) is an umbrella term, which includes all possible disorders associated with prenatal alcohol exposure.

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is the most severe form of this disorder and the leading cause of preventable mental disability in the world.

The following features should be present for a diagnosis of FASD (by a trained Specialist medical practitioner, using the standardised scientific assessment tools developed by national and international FASD specialists:

Small head size

Growth retardation before and after birth(height & weight)

Intellectual disability

Specific facial features such as long, smooth, upper lip, small openings of the eye (called palpebral fissures), etc.

Organ anomalies e.g. heart defects

In addition, individuals with FASD may present with a variety of learning, behavioral and psychological symptoms without having any physical abnormalities.

Frequently asked Questions

What is Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD)?

FASD is the broad term used for all developmental abnormalities caused by alcohol consumption during pregnancy.

Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is caused by alcohol exposure during pregnancy. Alcohol acts as a powerful toxin (poison) to the developing fetus and can affect the fetus within 20 minutes after the ingestion of alcohol. It affects the development of all fetal tissue and organs, although the brain and the nervous system are the most vulnerable.

After birth, the baby may present with a range of physical, neurological, behavioral and intellectual abnormalities that become more evident over time. In addition to intellectual deficits, an individual with FASD may present with the following:

  • Growth retardation (small for age before and after birth)
  • Organ damage, especially the brain, eyes, ears and heart
  • Abnormal facial features
  • Brain damage, which result in lifelong challenges such as learning disability, interpersonal relationship problems, developmental disability such as fine motor development and coordination. In addition, most of these children also present with attention and hyperactivity symptoms.

In Adolescence an individual with FASD may present with additional challenges such as:

  • Poor scholastic performance
  • Mental health- and substance abuse problems

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is the most severe form of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. Other disorders within the FASD spectrum are:

Alcohol Related Neurodevelopmental Disorders (ARND):  Any of the developing fetus’ organs can be affected by the poisonous (toxic) effect of alcohol, however the brain is especially vulnerable. Children with ARND will present with brain (neurological) damage, but few of the other obvious signs or symptoms of FASD. Diagnosing ARND demands specialized neuro-developmental assessments (psychological testing) using scientifically developed assessment measures for FASD. This needs to be corroborated by a positive history of alcohol consumption during pregnancy, through an extensive maternal interview. Children with this condition are often wrongly labelled as naughty, hyperactive and / or with attention deficit disorder (ADHD-like behavior).

Alcohol Related Birth Defects (ARBD):  ARBD is characterized by organ damage caused by alcohol consumption during pregnancy.  These individuals do not present with any other signs of FASD, only developmental abnormalities of organ systems, i.e. heart, eye, hearing, skeletal.  Diagnosing ARBD would include an extensive maternal interview confirming alcohol consumption during pregnancy as well as clinical examination by a trained medical specialist.

Partial FAS (PFAS):  An individual with PFAS usually presents with some of the facial and physical signs of FASD, but do not show all features associated with FAS.

How much alcohol is safe to consume during pregnancy?

No amount of alcohol is safe to consume during pregnancy.

Alcohol is metabolised differently in all individuals. Some people may feel intoxicated from a few sips of wine while others may be able to tolerate more alcohol. The body’s response to alcohol will vary from person to person due to various factors such as body weight, nutritional status, general health and gender. When a woman is pregnant, her body’s ability to metabolize alcohol also changes. This is compounded by the fetus’ susceptible nervous system to the harmful effect of alcohol as well as the inability of the immature fetal liver to metabolise alcohol.

What is the extent of FASD?

The prevalence and extent of FASD is a worldwide challenge.  Formal figures of the incidence for a few countries such as America (0,1 3%), France (2,1%) are available. Prevalence studies conducted by FARR (see table below) has shown that South-Africa has the highest reported rate of FASD worldwide. It is 30 – 50 times more common than the next most common birth defect, namely Down Syndrome.

*These figures are under formal analysis and confirmation

The above studies were conducted according to international scientific standards and guidelines, on grade 1 learners (school entrants) or infants (see De Aar, 2005 – 2009). The findings can therefore be generalized for the specific local communities, but is not sufficient to provide a national prevalence rate for South Africa.

It has been estimated that more than 2 million of the South African population are affected by FAS and a further 5 million have features of FASD. Because international standards are used in the studies, we are able to compare our data with the rest of the world.

Can anyone be affected with FASD?

Any developing fetus exposed to prenatal alcohol consumption is at risk of being born with FASD.

Can FASD be cured?

FASD CANNOT be cured.  The damage caused to the developing fetus is permanent and cannot be reversed. Fortunately, FASD is 100% preventable, by not exposing the developing fetus to alcohol during pregnancy!

How is FASD diagnosed?

FASD can only be diagnosed with the use of standardized scientific diagnostic assessments, by a trained medical specialist.  This is most importantly to prevent labelling and stigmatization of individuals and their families.

The diagnosis of FASD can only be made by a trained medical specialist part of a multi-disciplinary team of trained experts and includes:

  • Clinical assessment (IOM model):  undertaken by a medical specialist, trained in the diagnosis of FASD, using special tests and criteria.
  • Neurodevelopmental assessment:  undertaken by trained psychometrist using suitable tests for diagnosing FASD and to assess the development of the individual.
  • Detailed interview with the mother:  undertaken by a trained member of the multi-disciplinary team to confirm alcohol consumption during pregnancy as well as relevant personal and medical history.

The results of these investigations are assessed by the team, and only if all three components support it, can a diagnosis of FASD be made.

What can be done to prevent FASD?

In many women, pregnancy is only confirmed at around 3 months of pregnancy.  By that stage, if they have consumed alcohol, much of the harmful effects of alcohol on the developing fetus, will have already been caused.  For this reason, the prevention of FASD should start with promoting awareness and education regarding the harmful effects of alcohol use during pregnancy among all sexually active women of child bearing age.  Also, all pregnant women who are or have been consuming alcohol should be encouraged to stop the use of alcohol as this could prevent and minimize further risk to the developing fetus.

Professionals such as social workers, health workers and educators should receive appropriate training to promote awareness and prevention of FASD.

If I consumed alcohol during my last pregnancy and my baby was fine, could I consume alcohol in the next pregnancy?

The best advice to all pregnant women is not to consume alcohol in any of their pregnancies.

When the same alcohol consumption habits are followed in two pregnancies, the effects may be completely different on both fetuses.  This is due to the fact that the extent of harm caused by alcohol consumption during pregnancy is dependent on:

  • The health, age and nutritional status of the mother.
  • Other substance use by the mother e.g. cigarette smoking, recreational drug use (marijuana, etc.)
  • Genetic factors. Maternal and paternal genetic factors that we all inherit from our parents that make us more or less susceptible to the harmful effects of alcohol. However, no two persons are more than 50% similar (our brothers, sisters, parents or our own children) so each pregnancy is different.

What if I am pregnant and I have been using alcohol?

All pregnant women who are or have been consuming alcohol should be encouraged to stop the use of alcohol as this could prevent and minimize further risk to the developing fetus.

It has been shown in research on pregnant women, that in those who stop using alcohol (compared to those who continue) there is a measurable beneficial effect on their babies’ health outcomes (baby’s benefit when their mothers stop using alcohol).

If I am worried that I or someone I know has a child with FASD, who can I go to for a diagnosis?

Visit your nearest primary health care clinic and ask to be referred to the relevant diagnostic service. In some areas in South Africa, this might require a referral to a tertiary hospital. However, it would be important to establish whether such an agency is able to offer this level of specialized service, including trained personnel and facilities. FARR has gained valuable experience in the management and support of individuals and families affected by FASD.  You are welcome to contact us for further information in this regard.

If a woman has FASD, can she pass it on to her children?

A baby can only have FASD when it has been exposed to alcohol during pregnancy.  If a woman who has FASD does not expose her unborn baby to alcohol, the baby will not have FASD.


Academic Publications by Prof. Denis Viljoen:

Post Graduate Research in FASD
If you are a university student and you are considering post-graduate research in FASD, please email us at:

Sundry Publications

Refer to list of FARR publications

Central Drug Authority, South Africa:

White papers:
National Drug Master Plan February 1999
An Overview of Health and Health Care in South Africa 1994 2010:

Priorities, Progress and Prospects for New Gains (A discussion document commissioned by the Henry J. Kaiser Foundation to help inform the National Health Leaders Retreat, Muldersdrift, January 24-26 2010) HM Government, United Kingdom: Healthy Lives,

Healthy People: Our strategy for public health in England, 30th November 2010

Liquor Acts
South African National Liquor Act (No 59 of 2003)
Western Cape Liquor Act, 59 of 2003

National Human Genetic Guidelines: Contact the Department of National Health (Human Genetics Division) on: 012 312 0000

  • National FASD policy: Contact the Department of National Health (Human Genetics Division) on 012 312 000

FARR training – click here to read more.

2020 Support Group Pamphlet (Afr. and Eng.)
2021 FARR Pamphlet
2021 FASD Pamphlet

In the media

The following section outlines articles and press releases about FARR and FASD:


WHO Bulletin: Fetal alcohol syndrome: dashed hopes, damaged lives

Press Release FARR FAStrap

BizCommunity: 25000 Babies born with FAS annually in South Africa

Media statement by Helen Zille, Premier of the Western Cape, on Government substance abuse strategy


Cape Times: Study reveals SA’s ‘crisis’ due to alcohol

Cape Times: Geneticist wins award

City Press: When I…

City Press: The war on drugs

City Press: PE schools remain closed

Die Burger: Kinders met FAS kos die straat

Die Burger: Weskaapse leerlinge drink

Die Burger: Wynbedryf erg onstig

Die Burger: Robertson Wynberf doen meer skade

Die Son: Drank babas dis n krises

Die Tyger Burger: Gedenk FAS dag

Echo: Geen hoeveelheid alkohol

Echo: FARR Open Day

Mail Guardian: It could also happen to you

Netwerk 24: Kinders met FAS kos staat miljoene

The New Age: Pregnant women cautioned 

The New Age: Alcohol abuse by mothers-to-be

News 24: No amount of alcohol is safe during pregnancy

Northern News: Support Group

The Herald: Heartbreak full classroom

The Herald: Schools become war zones

The Herald: Martins case unlikely to see

Weekend Post: Helenvale gang violence

Weekend Post: Nora Nginza critical condition

Weslander: Hopes positive message remains

Witzenberg Herald: FARR neem die voortou in Phillipstown

IOL Online News: SA’s FAS statistics

IOL Online News: FAS fails to dampen Tisha


Quicket News: The Imhoff Crush

Die Tyger Burger: ADHD screening clinic launched

Die Tyger Burger: Protect your unborn baby

Algoa News: EC to unveil Provincial Drug Master Plan

Die Son: O-Kapenaars is te lief vir drank

Mail and Guardian: Prenatal alcohol exposure impacts brain function

RNews: Provincial drug master plan for the Eastern Cape 

RNews: International Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) Day

SABC News: Men cautioned over foetal alcohol syndrome

Checkers Website News: Foetal Alcohol Syndrome

News 24: There may soon be a cure for foetal alcohol syndrome

SA Breweries Website News: Protecting the innocent

All Africa Website News: MEC  Albert Fritz Launches Epwp Initiative to combat fetal alcohol syndrome

Cape Times: Partnership trains youth to fight foetal alcohol disorder

Sunday Times: Silence to highlight dangers of drinking while pregnant

Eyewitness News: Western and Eastern Cape record highest number of babies born with FAS disorder

Eyewitness News: SA records highest number of FASD cases in the world

George Herald: Your unborn baby drinks with you

Huffington Post: Fetal alcohol syndrome is a real crises in South Africa

In The Journals: Nearly eight in 1000 infants worldwide born with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder

PressReader Website News: Prenatal alcohol exposure impacts brain function

The Herald: Call to combat foetal alcohol spectrum disorders

Dorps Koerant: FASD International foetal alcohol spectrum disorder day

Eastern Cape Liqor Board Online News: FASD research and prevention project

Cape Argus: New initiative to tackle foetal alcohol spectrum disorder

Cape Argus: Alcohol is bane to your unborn kids

Psychiatry Advisor Online News: Foetal alcohol spectrum disorders


CTICC join forces with Community Partners,

GEMSBOK 29 Junie FASTRAP in Upington,

Rapport 09 September – Sirkel van armoede as tieners ma word,

Cape Times 07September 2018 – FASD a 20 year journey,

die Burger 11 Des 2018 SA kan nie trots wees op die syfers nie.


Prince Albert Vriend: Geen Alkohol tydens Swangerskap


Prince Albert Vriend: Vetplantjies

Die Son: FASD in die kollig

Die Echo: Community study calls for creative thinking in Covid-19

Die Echo: FARR and beyond

Gemsbok: Bewusmaking van FASD op Upington op n baie spesiale manier

A Commercial Feature: September 9 – International Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) Day


Prince Albert Friend: February publication

Prince Albert Friend: March publication

Prince Albert Friend: April publication

Trouw – Dutch Newspaper publication: April publication

Prince Albert Friend: May publication

Press release: 2021 Press release 2 Why 9 September (and FASD Knot) 30 Aug 2021

Press release: 2021 Press Release International FASD Day – 9 September

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